6. Production of Compolite
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6.1 Experimental Procedure

Fine sand, cement and water are mixed in accordance with the design-mix charts taking into consideration suitable property-enhancing materials like fibre and other pozzolan and/or cementitious products. Simplified material formulation for Compolite of density 1000 kg/m3 is shown in the table below

Material Formulation for Compolite of density 1000 kg/m3

315 kg of Cement
630 kg of Sand
145 Liter of Water
630 Liter of Foam


Cement and Sand are mixed first. Water is then added to the mix to form slurry. Foam is then added to achieve controlled density. If 1 litre of this mix weighs 1 kg then the density is 1000 kg/m3 (Normal concrete has a density of 2400 kg/m3). Curing is the same as normal concrete. Compolite can be demoulded after 16 hours. Compolite is recommended to be moist-cured at least for the first 2 days.

The water/cement ratio must be strictly followed since too little water might cause the cement to draw its requirement from the foam, causing the latter to collapse partly or in total. The foam allows any density of concrete from as low as 250 kg/m3 to 1800 kg/m3 to be produced with an optimum ratio of strength-to-density. The possible wide range of densities achievable thus offers multiple and diversified applications, such as site mixing, off-site mixing, prefabrication, pre-cast or cast in place.

Manufacturing of Compolite panels to any required size is possible with density ranging from 500 kg /m3 to 1800 kg /m3. Metal, wood or plastic mould could be used. Oiling of mould is usually necessary except for PE coated controlled permeability formwork. It is possible to manufacture 300mm x 600mm Compolite panels, thickness varies from 75mm to 150mm, with enhanced acoustic thermal insulation properties (shown in figure as follows). Panel with density of 600 to 800 kg / m3 can be to size as large as 300mm x 1200mm x 100mm thick can still be lifted by a single worker. It can float on water. Curing is essential as in conventional concrete, as cement-based elements need moisture for hydration at an early age. This is particularly true in the presence of direct sunlight that is known to cause rapid dehydration of concrete surfaces. Curing compound can be applied as an alternative barrier.



Experimental Production of Compolite Panels


An acoustic thermal insulation test chamber is available for public viewing and online skill training via a research portal http://www.1.edu.my.

6.2 Effect of additives

Mixing randomly distributed short fibre in Compolite results in a three-dimensionally reinforced matrix. The fibre have the effect of increasing the flexural and impact strength, reducing early-age cracking and also reducing water absorption. The experimental work on foamed concrete containing palm fibre, rice husk and paddy stalk is in progress. .

6.3 Soft Soil Foundation System

Compolite is suitable for foundations on soft soil. Slabs of 600mm thick can be cast layer by layer to achieve required level. Experimental construction of load bearing raised floor with lightweight concrete composite panel with interlocking features. The web and PVC pipes are provided to accommodate steel bar, wiring conduit or water pipes. The lightweight concrete composite system to form a load-bearing wall. It can be cast to any required size. Load-bearing block with hollow section infilled with lightweight concrete may be coated with a single a layer of spray applied coating as finishing. Figure 6.3.0 shows the cross-section of an insulated lightweight prestressed TIA concrete floor slab.



Figure 6.3.0 Cross-Section Of An Insulated Lightweight Prestressed TIA Concrete Floor Slab


As a continuing effort for sustainable construction, several types of alternative aggregate are experimented such as palm clinker. Figure 6.3.1 shows the collection of palm oil clinker and Figure 6.3.2 shows the transportation and delivery of palm oil clinker to the laboratory for processing. Figure 6.3.3 shows the processed palm oil clinker as lightweight aggregate.



Figure 6.3.1: Collection of Palm Oil Clinker


Figure 6.3.2:Transportation and Delivery of Palm Oil Clinker


Figure 6.3.3:Processed Palm Clinker as Lightweight aggregate
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